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Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Nov;60(11):2355-2366. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600178. Epub 2016 Sep 6.

Different effects of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) on monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells in a TNF-α stimulated proinflammatory environment.

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Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Division of Human Nutrition, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.



Monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium is a crucial step in the early stages of atherogenesis. This study aims to investigate the capacity of an anthocyanin (ACN) and phenolic acid (PA) rich fraction (RF) of a wild blueberry, single ACNs (cyanidin, malvidin, delphinidin) and related metabolites (protocatechuic, syringic, and gallic acid) to counteract monocytes (THP-1) adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) mediated proinflammatory environment.


HUVECs were incubated with different concentrations (from 0.01 to 10 μg/mL) of the compounds for 24 h. Labeled monocytic THP-1 cells were added to HUVECs and their adhesion was induced by TNF-α (100 ng/mL). ACN-RF reduced THP-1 adhesion to HUVECs with a maximum effect at 10 μg/mL (-33%). PA-RF counteracted THP-1 adhesion at 0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg/mL (-45, -48.7, and -27.6%, respectively), but not at maximum concentration. Supplementation with gallic acid reduced THP-1 adhesion to HUVECs with a maximum effect at 1 μg/mL (-29.9%), while malvidin-3-glucoside and syringic acid increased the adhesion. No effect was observed for the other compounds.


These results suggest that ACNs/PA-RF may prevent atherogenesis while the effects of the single ACNs and metabolites are controversial and merit further exploration.


Adhesion; Anthocyanins; Atherogenesis; Cell culture; Metabolites; Wild blueberry

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