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Acta Biomater. 2016 Sep 15;42:168-179. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2016.06.013. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Anti-inflammatory Chitosan/Poly-γ-glutamic acid nanoparticles control inflammation while remodeling extracellular matrix in degenerated intervertebral disc.

Author information

1
Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, University of Ulm, Helmholtzstrasse 14, 89081 Ulm, Germany; ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.
2
Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.
3
Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal.
4
Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, University of Ulm, Helmholtzstrasse 14, 89081 Ulm, Germany.
5
Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: raquelg@ineb.up.pt.

Abstract

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is one of the most common causes of low back pain (LBP), the leading disorder in terms of years lived with disability. Inflammation can play a role in LPB, while impairs IVD regeneration. In spite of this, different inflammatory targets have been purposed in the context of IVD regeneration. Anti-inflammatory nanoparticles (NPs) of Chitosan and Poly-(γ-glutamic acid) with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac (Df), were previously shown to counteract a pro-inflammatory response of human macrophages. Here, the effect of intradiscal injection of Df-NPs in degenerated IVD was evaluated. For that, Df-NPs were injected in a bovine IVD organ culture in pro-inflammatory/degenerative conditions, upon stimulation with needle-puncture and interleukin (IL)-1β. Df-NPs were internalized by IVD cells, down-regulating IL-6, IL-8, MMP1 and MMP3, and decreasing PGE2 production, compared with IL-1β-stimulated IVD punches. Interestingly, at the same time, Df-NPs promoted an up-regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, namely collagen type II and aggrecan. Allover, this study suggests that IVD treatment with Df-NPs not only reduces inflammation, but also delays and/or decreases ECM degradation, opening perspectives to new intradiscal therapies for IVD degeneration, based on the modulation of inflammation.

STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:

Degeneration of the IVD is an age-related progressive process considered to be the major cause of spine disorders. The pro-inflammatory environment and biomechanics of the degenerated IVD is a challenge for regenerative therapies. The novelty of this work is the intradiscal injection of an anti-inflammatory therapy based on Chitosan (Ch)/Poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with an anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac, Df), previously developed by us. This drug delivery system was tested in a pro-inflammatory/degenerative intervertebral disc ex vivo model. The main findings support the success of an anti-inflammatory therapy for degenerated IVD that not only reduces inflammation but also promotes native IVD matrix production.

KEYWORDS:

Diclofenac; Inflammation; Intervertebral disc; Nanoparticles; Organ culture

PMID:
27321188
DOI:
10.1016/j.actbio.2016.06.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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