Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Atherosclerosis. 2016 Aug;251:132-138. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.06.022. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Low-flow mediated constriction incorporated indices as indicators of cardiovascular risk in smokers.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
2
Department of Medical Education and General Practice, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address: yatakemoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp.
3
Department of Medical Education and General Practice, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
4
Knowledge Hub of Aichi, Priority Research Project, Aichi Science and Technology Foundation, Toyota, Japan.
5
School of Information Science and Technology, Aichi Prefectural University, Nagakute, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Low-flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC), the endothelial response to reduced blood flow by forearm compression, is present in some smokers. The differences between smokers with and without L-FMC are unclear. It is also unknown whether flow-mediated total dilation (FMTD) or modified flow-mediated dilation (mFMD), both of which incorporate information concerning L-FMC, could be used to estimate cardiovascular risk. We sought to clarify the clinical factors associated with the presence of L-FMC in smokers according to sex and examine whether L-FMC incorporated indices would be better than a conventional index to estimate cardiovascular risk in smokers.

METHODS:

In total, 140 consecutive smokers (58 ± 13 years old) with no coronary heart disease and 48 non-smokers, who comprised the age- and sex-matched control group, were enrolled.

RESULTS:

L-FMC was demonstrated in 33.6% (47/140) and 25% (12/48) of the smokers and non-smokers, respectively. In male smokers, the predictors of the presence of L-FMC were age (p = 0.014), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.045), and baseline brachial arterial diameter (Dbase) (p = 0.048). In female smokers, there were no predictors of the presence of L-FMC. The correlations between the Framingham risk score (FRS) and %FMTD (r = -0.34) and between FRS and %mFMD (r = -0.33) were stronger than that between FRS and conventional flow-mediated dilation (%cFMD) (r = -0.20).

CONCLUSIONS:

Independent predictors of the presence of L-FMC were age, BMI, and Dbase in male smokers. L-FMC incorporated indices may be good alternatives to cFMD to estimate cardiovascular risk.

KEYWORDS:

Flow-mediated dilation; Framingham risk score; Low-flow-mediated constriction; Smoking

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center