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Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2016 Sep;19:25-33. doi: 10.1016/j.cbd.2016.05.004. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

Global metabolite analysis of the land snail Theba pisana hemolymph during active and aestivated states.

Author information

1
Genecology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4558, Australia; School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Australia.
2
Genecology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4558, Australia.
3
Metabolomics Australia, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Australia; School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Australia.
4
School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Australia.
5
Institute of Biochemistry & Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada.
6
Genecology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4558, Australia. Electronic address: scummins@usc.edu.au.

Abstract

The state of metabolic dormancy has fascinated people for hundreds of years, leading to research exploring the identity of natural molecular components that may induce and maintain this state. Many animals lower their metabolism in response to high temperatures and/or arid conditions, a phenomenon called aestivation. The biological significance for this is clear; by strongly suppressing metabolic rate to low levels, animals minimize their exposure to stressful conditions. Understanding blood or hemolymph metabolite changes that occur between active and aestivated animals can provide valuable insights relating to those molecular components that regulate hypometabolism in animals, and how they afford adaptation to their different environmental conditions. In this study, we have investigated the hemolymph metabolite composition from the land snail Theba pisana, a remarkably resilient mollusc that displays an annual aestivation period. Using LC-MS-based metabolomics analysis, we have identified those hemolymph metabolites that show significant changes in relative abundance between active and aestivated states. We show that certain metabolites, including some phospholipids [e.g. LysoPC(14:0)], and amino acids such as l-arginine and l-tyrosine, are present at high levels within aestivated snails. Further investigation of our T. pisana RNA-sequencing data elucidated the entire repertoire of phospholipid-synthesis genes in the snail digestive gland, as a precursor towards future comparative investigation between the genetic components of aestivating and non-aestivating species. In summary, we have identified a large number of metabolites that are elevated in the hemolymph of aestivating snails, supporting their role in protecting against heat or desiccation.

KEYWORDS:

Aestivation; LC-MS; Metabolites; Metabolomics; Non-aestivated; Phospholipid; T. pisana

PMID:
27318654
DOI:
10.1016/j.cbd.2016.05.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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