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Surv Ophthalmol. 2016 Nov - Dec;61(6):702-717. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2016.06.002. Epub 2016 Jun 16.

Treatment and management of scleral disorders.

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Department of Ophthalmology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.
Department of Ophthalmology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, USA. Electronic address:


Scleral inflammatory disorders, with their extensive differential diagnoses and sometimes as controversial treatment options, pose both diagnostic and clinical challenges for physicians. Targeted laboratory investigations derived from careful history taking and physical examination are crucial in the early identification of patients with associated systemic conditions. Prompt discrimination between episcleritis and scleritis is of therapeutic importance, as management, prognosis, and complications differ for these diseases. Although immunomodulatory and new biologic agents have improved the management of scleritis, continued studies are warranted to establish effective treatment guidelines across patient populations, especially in refractory cases.


episcleritis; management; sclera; scleritis; treatment

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