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Food Chem Toxicol. 2016 Aug;94:203-12. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.06.004. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Hepatotoxicity and endothelial dysfunction induced by high choline diet and the protective effects of phloretin in mice.

Author information

1
Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China.
2
School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.
3
Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Food Green Processing and Safety Control, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China. Electronic address: xbyang@snnu.edu.cn.

Abstract

The involvement of choline and its metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis has been repeatedly confirmed. Phloretin, a dihydrochalcone flavonoid usually present in apples, possesses a variety of biological activities including vascular nutrition. This study was designed to investigate whether phloretin could alleviate or prevent high choline-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in mice. Mice were provided with 3% high choline water and given phloretin orally daily for 10 weeks. The high choline-treated mice showed the significant dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia with the impaired liver and vascular endothelium (p < 0.01). Administration of phloretin at 200 and 400 mg/kg bw significantly reduced the choline-induced elevation of serum TC, TG, LDL-C, AST, ALT, ET-1 and TXA2 (p < 0.01), and markedly antagonized the choline-induced decrease of serum PGI2, HDL-C and NO levels. Furthermore, phloretin elevated hepatic SOD and GSH-Px activities and decreased hepatic MDA levels of the mice exposed to high choline water. Moreover, histopathological test with the H&E and Oil Red O staining of liver sections confirmed the high choline diet-caused liver steatosis and the hepatoprotective effect of phloretin. These findings suggest that high choline causes oxidative damage, and phloretin alleviate vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury.

KEYWORDS:

Atherosclerosis; Choline; Liver injury; Phloretin; Vascular endothelial dysfunction

PMID:
27316781
DOI:
10.1016/j.fct.2016.06.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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