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J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Sep;116(9):1443-1449. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2016.05.002. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Improvement in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Associated with More Favorable Energy Density and Nutrient and Food Group Intake, but not Kilocalories.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Children generally do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables (F/V). Eating more F/V can improve energy density and overall diet quality.

OBJECTIVE:

Our aim was to investigate whether improvements in F/V consumption were associated with improvements in energy density, total calories, and dietary components related to F/V.

DESIGN:

We performed secondary analyses of dietary data from a successful four-group randomized controlled trial promoting F/V. Data were collected at baseline, immediately after gameplay, and 3 months post intervention.

PARTICIPANTS/SETTING:

Preadolescent child-parent dyads (n=400) were recruited. Eligibility criteria were 4th- or 5th-grade child (approximately 9 to 11 years old) with Internet access and a parent willing to participate in the intervention. Complete dietary data were collected on 387 of the 400 child participants. The videogame was available online on a secure, password-protected website.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Dietary intake was assessed with three unannounced dietary recalls collected at each data-collection period via telephone by trained staff using Nutrition Data System for Research software. Energy density and F/V, nutrient, and food consumption were calculated.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED:

A 4×3 (group by time) repeated measures analysis of covariance with mixed-effect linear models was used. Covariates included child's sex, race/ethnicity, and total energy intake as well as parent's age and household education. Energy was excluded as a covariate in the energy density and energy models.

RESULTS:

Significant changes occurred in energy density. A significant interaction (group by time) was observed (F6, 515=2.40; P<0.05) in energy density from food only, while a significant time effect was observed for energy density from all foods and beverages (F2, 388=13.75; P<0.0001). Desirable changes were also observed in F/V-related dietary components.

CONCLUSIONS:

Increasing F/V consumption improved energy density and diet quality considerably in preadolescent children.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01004094.

KEYWORDS:

Children; Energy density; Fruit and vegetable consumption; Nutrients; Videogame

PMID:
27316780
PMCID:
PMC5003727
DOI:
10.1016/j.jand.2016.05.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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