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Antioxidants (Basel). 2016 Jun 14;5(2). pii: E20. doi: 10.3390/antiox5020020.

Terminalia bellirica Extract Inhibits Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response in Vitro.

Author information

1
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan. g1670502@edu.cc.ocha.ac.jp.
2
Endowed Research Department "Food for Health", Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan. kishimoto.yoshimi@ocha.ac.jp.
3
Endowed Research Department "Food for Health", Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan. saita.emi@ocha.ac.jp.
4
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan. notch0708@gmail.com.
5
Research and Development Division, Toyo Shinyaku Co Ltd., 7-28 Yayoigaoka, Tosu-shi, Saga 841-0005, Japan. kamiyat@toyoshinyaku.co.jp.
6
Endowed Research Department "Food for Health", Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan. taguchi.chie@ocha.ac.jp.
7
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan. iida.kaoruko@ocha.ac.jp.
8
Endowed Research Department "Food for Health", Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan. kondo.kazuo@ocha.ac.jp.
9
Institute of Life Innovation Studies, Toyo University, 1-1-1 Izumino, Itakura-machi, Ora-gun, Gunma 374-0193, Japan. kondo.kazuo@ocha.ac.jp.

Abstract

The deciduous tree Terminalia bellirica found in Southeast Asia is extensively used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of hypertension, rheumatism, and diabetes. The anti-atherogenic effect of Terminalia bellirica fruit has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of Terminalia bellirica extract (TBE) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and inflammation in macrophages. TBE showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (EC50: 7.2 ± 1.2 μg/mL) and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. TBE also significantly inhibited free radical-induced LDL oxidation compared to the solvent control in vitro. In THP-1 macrophages, TBE treatment resulted in significant decreases of the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). TBE also reduced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in THP-1 macrophages. These results show that TBE has the inhibitory effects on LDL oxidation and macrophage inflammatory response in vitro, suggesting that its in vivo use might inhibit atherosclerosis plaque progression.

KEYWORDS:

Terminalia bellirica; atherosclerosis; inflammation; lipid oxidation; macrophage; polyphenol

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