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J Nutr Sci. 2016 Feb 9;5:e9. doi: 10.1017/jns.2015.40. eCollection 2016.

Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition , University of California Davis , Davis, CA , USA.
2
Department of Nutrition, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA; USDA/ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA, USA.
3
USDA/ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center , Davis, CA , USA.
4
Foods for Health Institute, University of California, Davis, CA, USA; Department of Food Science & Technology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Abstract

Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P < 0·05) without a decrease by 6 h. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for CRP was significantly lower (P < 0·05) in response to the cheese compared with the vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

KEYWORDS:

CH, cheese; CRP, C-reactive protein; Dairy products; HOMA-IR, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; Inflammation; MCP-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1; Metabolic syndrome; Obesity; Palm oil; Postprandial metabolism; SAA, serum amyloid-A; VA, vegan alternative; Vegan diets; WC, waist circumference; iAUC, incremental AUC; sICAM, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule

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