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Nat Commun. 2016 Jun 16;7:11870. doi: 10.1038/ncomms11870.

Diversity, structure and convergent evolution of the global sponge microbiome.

Author information

1
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Marine Bio-Innovation and School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia.
2
The Environment Institute and School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.
3
Ecological Networks and Global Change Group, Experimental and Theoretical Ecology Station, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Moulis 09200, France.
4
Institute of Marine Sciences, CSIC, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.
5
Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35487, USA.
6
School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand.
7
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487, USA.
8
Department of Biology and Marine Biology, and Center for Marine Science. University of North Carolina Wilmington, 5600 Marvin K. Moss Lane, Wilmington, North Carolina 28409, USA.
9
NAMRA and the Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0810, Australia.
10
Halmos College of Natural Sciences and Oceanography, Guy Harvey Oceanographic Center, Nova Southeastern University, Dania Beach, Florida 33004, USA.
11
Microbial Ecology and Evolution Research Group, Centre of Marine Sciences, Algarve University, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal.
12
Institute of Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, ICBM, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg 26111, Germany.
13
Department of Marine Biology, Leon Charney School of Marine Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel.
14
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and GeoBio-CenterLMU, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich 80539, Germany.
15
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
16
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA.
17
Departments of Pediatrics and Computer Science and Engineering and Center for Microbiome Innovation, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.
18
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA.
19
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel 24105, Germany.
20
Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland 4816, Australia.

Abstract

Sponges (phylum Porifera) are early-diverging metazoa renowned for establishing complex microbial symbioses. Here we present a global Porifera microbiome survey, set out to establish the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these host-microbe interactions. We show that sponges are a reservoir of exceptional microbial diversity and major contributors to the total microbial diversity of the world's oceans. Little commonality in species composition or structure is evident across the phylum, although symbiont communities are characterized by specialists and generalists rather than opportunists. Core sponge microbiomes are stable and characterized by generalist symbionts exhibiting amensal and/or commensal interactions. Symbionts that are phylogenetically unique to sponges do not disproportionally contribute to the core microbiome, and host phylogeny impacts complexity rather than composition of the symbiont community. Our findings support a model of independent assembly and evolution in symbiont communities across the entire host phylum, with convergent forces resulting in analogous community organization and interactions.

PMID:
27306690
PMCID:
PMC4912640
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms11870
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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