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J Thromb Haemost. 2016 Sep;14(9):1736-40. doi: 10.1111/jth.13387. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

A meta-analysis of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with brain tumors receiving therapeutic anticoagulation.

Author information

1
Division of Hematology-Oncology, Division of Hemostasis and Thrombosis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. jzwicker@bidmc.harvard.edu.
2
Division of Hematology-Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
3
Thrombosis Program, Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

Essentials Clinicians may be hesitant to administer anticoagulation in the setting of brain metastases or glioma. In this meta-analysis, we identified nine retrospective cohort studies that met inclusion criteria. Anticoagulation did not increase the risk of intracranial hemorrhage in brain metastasis. In the setting of glioma, anticoagulation resulted in 3.8-fold increase in intracranial hemorrhage.

SUMMARY:

Background Venous thromboembolism commonly occurs in patients with brain tumors. Because of the high rate of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), the safety of therapeutic anticoagulation is commonly questioned. Objective We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate whether therapeutic anticoagulation is associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with brain tumors. Patients/Methods A systematic literature search strategy was conducted. Summary statistics for ICH were obtained by calculating the odds ratio using a random effects model and heterogeneity across studies was estimated by the I(2) statistic. Results A total of nine retrospective cohort studies met the criteria for inclusion. The odds ratio (OR) for ICH in patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation versus those who did not receive anticoagulation was 2.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-4.56; I(2) = 46%). In studies evaluating anticoagulation in patients with brain metastases, there was no apparent increased risk of ICH (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.61-1.88; I(2) = 0%). However, in patients with glioma there was an increase in risk of ICH associated with the administration of anticoagulation (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.42-9.95; I(2) = 33%). Conclusions The risk of ICH in patients with brain tumors receiving therapeutic anticoagulation depends on the diagnosis of primary or metastatic brain tumors. Although anticoagulation was not associated with an increased risk of ICH in the setting of brain metastasis, its use resulted in a greater than 3-fold increased risk of ICH in patients with glioma.

KEYWORDS:

anticoagulation; brain metastases; brain tumors; intracranial hemorrhage; venous thromboembolism

PMID:
27306689
DOI:
10.1111/jth.13387
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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