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World J Urol. 2017 Mar;35(3):459-465. doi: 10.1007/s00345-016-1879-2. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and related risk factors in school-age children in Egypt: an epidemiological study.

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Department of Public Health&Community Medicine, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.
Department of Urology, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University Hospital, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.



To determine the prevalence of mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and its risk factors among school-age children in our community.


A cross-sectional study included school-age children from two governorates in south of Egypt. A questionnaire was presented to randomly selected students. It consisted of 3 domains: Domain 1 included questions about MNE, domain 2 was about risk factors for MNE, and domain 3 was about management of MNE.


The study included 4652 students (9 ± 2 years) from 12 primary schools (51 % males and 49 % females). Of 4652 students, 834 (18 %) had NE, with no significant difference between rural and urban areas (17.5 vs. 18.4 %, p = 0.4). Younger age categories showed higher prevalence of MNE than in older children. MNE caused moderate-to-severe bother for 44.5 and 87.8 % of students and parents, respectively. Urinary tract infection, pinworm infestation, constipation, and caffeine over-consumption significantly associated with MNE. Family history of MNE was positive in 84.7 %. Daytime incontinence coexisted in 16 % of cases. Children with ≥4 siblings and birth order ≥3 had more prevalent MNE. Deep sleepers and exposure to problems/violence correlated positively with occurrence of MNE. Father's level of education and work status, mother education, number of children per room, and socioeconomic status significantly associated with occurrence of MNE. There was no significant correlation between gender and prevalence of MNE. No treatment was used in 53.2 % of cases.


In the Egyptian community, pinworm infestation, UTI, constipation, and overconsumption of caffeine-containing beverages are potential reversible risk factors for MNE in school-age children.


Nocturnal enuresis; Prevalence; School-children

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