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Nat Rev Microbiol. 2016 Jul;14(7):434-47. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro.2016.59.

Dimensions of biodiversity in the Earth mycobiome.

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Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota.
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA.
Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.


Fungi represent a large proportion of the genetic diversity on Earth and fungal activity influences the structure of plant and animal communities, as well as rates of ecosystem processes. Large-scale DNA-sequencing datasets are beginning to reveal the dimensions of fungal biodiversity, which seem to be fundamentally different to bacteria, plants and animals. In this Review, we describe the patterns of fungal biodiversity that have been revealed by molecular-based studies. Furthermore, we consider the evidence that supports the roles of different candidate drivers of fungal diversity at a range of spatial scales, as well as the role of dispersal limitation in maintaining regional endemism and influencing local community assembly. Finally, we discuss the ecological mechanisms that are likely to be responsible for the high heterogeneity that is observed in fungal communities at local scales.

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