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Curr Drug Targets. 2016;17(15):1804-1817.

Recent Advancements in Diagnosis and Therapy of Liver Cirrhosis.

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Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine (DMSC) and Liver Unit; University of Florence- School of Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi - AOUC Largo Brambilla, no. 3 I-50134 - Firenze, Italy.


Cirrhosis is a diffuse pathophysiological state of the liver considered to be the final stage of various liver injuries, characterized by chronic necroinflammatory and fibrogenetic processes, with subsequent conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules, dense fibrotic septa, concomitant parenchymal exaustment and collapse of the liver tissue. Alcoholic liver disease and chronic infections due to HBV and/or HCV constitute the main causes of liver cirrhosis worldwide. During a lag time of 15 to 30 years, chronic liver diseases can lead to liver cirrhosis and its complications. Active hepatic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the inflammation- necrosis-regeneration process, which eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Prognosis of liver cirrhosis is highly variable and influenced by several variables, such as etiology, severity of liver disease, presence of complications and comorbidities. In advanced cirrhosis, survival decreases to one or two years. Correct advanced diagnosis and selected treatment with different molecules may help in understanding mechanisms of fibrogenesis, the driving forces of cirrhosis's pathogenesis, and the scrupulous approach to more effective therapeutic procedures. Prevention of fibrosis with further deterioration of liver function through specific treatments is always required, through the removal of the underlying causes of liver disease. Advanced liver disease, with subsequent complications, requires targeted treatment. Therefore, the aim of this review is to assess the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis on the pathophysiological bases, searching for relevant studies published in English using the PubMed database from 2011 to the present.

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