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Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Jul;27(7):907-17. doi: 10.1007/s10552-016-0770-1. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Dietary inflammatory index, Mediterranean diet score, and lung cancer: a prospective study.

Author information

1
Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, 615 St Kilda Rd, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia. allison.hodge@cancervic.org.au.
2
Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, 615 St Kilda Rd, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia.
3
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208, USA.
4
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208, USA.
5
Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Melbourne, Level 3, 207 Bouverie St, University of Melbourne, VIC, 3010, Australia.
6
Université Paris-Saclay, Univ. Paris-Sud, UVSQ, CESP, INSERM, Villejuif, France.
7
Gustave Roussy, 94805, Villejuif, France.
8
Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
9
HuGeF, Human Genetics Foundation, 10126, Torino, Italy.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To investigate prospectively the associations of Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) with lung cancer.

METHODS:

We used data from men and women aged 40-69 years at recruitment in 1990-1994, who were participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (n = 35,303). A total of 403 incident lung cancer cases were identified over an average 18-year follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for smoking status and other risk factors, with age as the time metric.

RESULTS:

An inverse correlation was observed between the DII and MDS (ρ = -0.45), consistent with a higher DII being pro-inflammatory and less 'healthy,' while a high MDS reflects a 'healthier' diet. The DII was positively associated with risk of lung cancer in current smokers [HRQ4 vs Q1 = 1.70 (1.02, 2.82); Ptrend = 0.008] (p interaction between DII quartiles and smoking status = 0.03). The MDS was inversely associated with lung cancer risk overall [HR7-9 vs 0-3 = 0.64 (0.45, 0.90); Ptrend = 0.005] and for current smokers (HR7-9 vs 0-3 = 0.38 (0.19, 0.75); Ptrend = 0.005) (p interaction between MDS categories and smoking status = 0.31).

CONCLUSIONS:

The MDS showed an inverse association with lung cancer risk, especially for current smokers. A high DII, indicating a more pro-inflammatory diet, was associated with risk of lung cancer only for current smokers. A healthy diet may reduce the risk of lung cancer, especially in smokers.

KEYWORDS:

Diet; Epidemiology; Inflammation; Lung cancer; Prospective; Smoking

PMID:
27294725
PMCID:
PMC5550291
DOI:
10.1007/s10552-016-0770-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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