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J Periodontol. 2016 Oct;87(10):1158-64. doi: 10.1902/jop.2016.150597. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Periodontal Disease and Incident Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

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Department of Evidence-Based and Translational Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
Department of Stomatology, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.



Periodontal disease is linked to a number of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Recent evidence has suggested periodontal disease might be associated with lung cancer. However, their precise relationship is yet to be explored. Hence, this study aims to investigate the association of periodontal disease and risk of incident lung cancer using a meta-analytic approach.


PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were searched up to June 10, 2015. Cohort and nested case-control studies investigating risk of lung cancer in patients with periodontal disease were included. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, as were their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed-effect inverse-variance model. Statistical heterogeneity was explored using the Q test as well as the I(2) statistic. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of funnel plots symmetry and Egger's test.


Five cohort studies were included, involving 321,420 participants in this meta-analysis. Summary estimates based on adjusted data showed that periodontal disease was associated with a significant risk of lung cancer (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.36; I(2) = 30%). No publication bias was detected. Subgroup analysis indicated that the association of periodontal disease and lung cancer remained significant in the female population.


Evidence from cohort studies suggests that patients with periodontal disease are at increased risk of developing lung cancer.


Cohort studies; evidence-based medicine; lung neoplasms; meta-analysis; periodontal diseases; periodontitis

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