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Phys Sportsmed. 2016 Sep;44(3):208-16. doi: 10.1080/00913847.2016.1200442. Epub 2016 Jul 5.

Effects of endurance and high intensity training on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels and arterial pressure in obese and normal weight adolescents.

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a Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences , University of Isfahan , Isfahan , Iran.
b Department of Health and Human Performance , Cleveland State University , Cleveland , OH , USA.
c Department of Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , University Putra Malaysia , Serdang , Malaysia.
d Department of Sport and Movement Studies , University of Johannesburg , Johannesburg , Republic of South Africa.



Obesity prevalence has increased in Iranian adolescents in recent years. However, few studies have examined the impact of intervention programs on this health issue. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8-week endurance training (ET) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) on intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) levels among obese and normal-weight male adolescents.


Thirty obese and 30 normal-weight subjects were assigned to the ET, HIIT, or control group for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, body weight, BMI, VO2max, and blood pressures were measured. SPSS (Version 21) was used for data analysis, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05.


Mixed design ANOVAs indicated that the obese participants had significantly (p < 0.05) lower ICAM-1 levels in the ET (from 509 ± 61 ng/ml to 387 ± 43 ng/ml) and HIIT (from 517 ± 72 ng/ml to 374 ± 50 ng/ml), but their VCAM-1 level was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced only after the HIIT (from 1689 ± 119 ng/ml to 1282 ± 63 ng/ml). Similarly, normal weight participants significantly (p < 0.05) lowered their ICAM-1 levels in the ET (from 296 ± 18 ng/ml to 216 ± 14 ng/ml) and HIIT (from 289 ± 22 ng/ml to 202 ± 12 ng/ml), but their VCAM-1 level was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced only after the HIIT (from 895 ± 50 ng/ml to 673 ± 142 ng/ml). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressures of all the participants were significantly (p < 0.01) decreased at the conclusion of the ET and HIIT.


While both the ET and HIIT were useful in lowering the SBP and DBP of the participants, HIIT was more effective than ET in reducing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 content in normal and obese adolescents.


Adhesion molecule; blood pressure; interval training; maximal oxygen uptake

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