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J Vet Cardiol. 2016 Sep;18(3):213-225. doi: 10.1016/j.jvc.2016.04.003. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

Infective endocarditis in 13 cats.

Author information

1
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 1809 South Riverside Drive, Ames, IA 50011, USA. Electronic address: jpalerme@iastate.edu.
2
Angell Animal Medical Center, 350 South Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02130, USA.
3
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 1809 South Riverside Drive, Ames, IA 50011, USA.
4
Department of Clinical Sciences and the Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory, Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA.
5
Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA.
6
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

To describe the clinical presentation, clinicopathological abnormalities and outcomes of a series of cats diagnosed with infective endocarditis (IE) at two tertiary care referral institutions.

ANIMALS:

Thirteen client-owned cats presenting to the cardiology or emergency services of tertiary referral institutions with a diagnosis of endocarditis based on the modified Duke criteria.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed to extract relevant data. In addition, cases that had cardiac tissue available were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of Bartonella DNA.

RESULTS:

Prevalence of feline IE was 0.007%. Cats with endocarditis tended to be older (median age: 9 years, range: 2-12 years) and no sex or breed was overrepresented. Commonly encountered clinical signs included respiratory distress (n = 5) and locomotor abnormalities of varying severity (n = 5). Echocardiographic examination detected valvular lesions consistent with endocarditis on the aortic (n = 8) or mitral (n = 5) valves. Nine cats were diagnosed with congestive heart failure at the time of endocarditis diagnosis. Overall, prognosis was grave with a median survival time of 31 days.

CONCLUSIONS:

In contrast to dogs, cats with IE typically present with clinical signs consistent with cardiac decompensation and locomotor abnormalities suggestive of either thromboembolic disease or inflammatory arthritis. Given the advanced state of disease when diagnosis typically occurs, prognosis is grave.

KEYWORDS:

BAPGM; Bartonella; Duke criteria; Vegetative lesion

PMID:
27283084
DOI:
10.1016/j.jvc.2016.04.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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