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Arch Med Sci. 2016 Jun 1;12(3):507-12. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2016.59923. Epub 2016 May 18.

Lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of omega 3 ethyl esters and krill oil: a randomized, cross-over, clinical trial.

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1
Medical and Surgical Sciences Department, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from different sources could have different lipid-lowering effects in humans. The main aim of our study was to compare the short-term triglyceride-lowering efficacy of krill oil and purified omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs in mildly overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out in 25 moderately hypertriglyceridemic subjects (TG = 150-500 mg/dl). After a 4-week run-in, participants were allocated to treatment with similar pills containing omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs 1000 mg twice a day vs. krill oil 500 mg twice a day. After 4 weeks of treatment, participants were asked to observe a 4-week wash-out period, and they were then assigned to the alternative treatment for a further period of 4 weeks.

RESULTS:

Although both PUFA sources were able to improve TG plasma levels, esterified omega 3 PUFAs were more efficacious than krill oil (p < 0.05). Nonetheless, only krill oil treatment was able to significantly improve high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI levels, compared to both baseline (p < 0.05) and end of treatment with esterified omega 3 PUFAs (p < 0.05) values. Both treatments were able to significantly reduce high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels from the baseline (p < 0.05), but krill oil improved it more efficaciously than esterified omega 3 PUFAs (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Krill oil has lipid-lowering effects comparable with those obtained through a 4-fold higher dose of purified omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs in mildly overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects, while more efficaciously reducing hs-CRP.

KEYWORDS:

docosahexaenoic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid; hyperlipidemia; inflammation; krill oil; omega 3 fatty acids

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