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Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2016 Mar 15;4(1):83-8. doi: 10.3889/oamjms.2016.024. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Insulin Resistance in Postmenopausal Diabetic Women.

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University Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolic Disorders, Faculty of Medicine, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.



Insulin resistance (IR) is closely associated with diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, increased visceral fat in menopause is also associated with IR, which makes postmenopausal diabetic women in a big risk for cardiovascular diseases. There are conflicting reports about the effects on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on IR.


The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of HRT on IR.


A total of 40 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and followed for 12 months. Half of them were assigned to take HRT, while the other half made the control group. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulinemia were measured in both groups at baseline and after 12 months. IR was represented by Homeostatic model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR).


HRT was associated with significant decrease in HOMA-IR, FPG and insulinemia in the examined group. There was no significant reduction in FPG and no significant increase in insulinemia levels and HOMA-IR values in control group after 12 months.


HRT was associated with statistically signifficant increase of insulin sensitivity. Larger clinical trials will be necessary to understand whether HRT may improve insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in women with diabetes, especially when given shortly after entering menopause.


Diabetes mellitus; HOMA - IR; Hormone replacement therapy; Insulin resistance; Menopause

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