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Obes Rev. 2016 Sep;17(9):795-809. doi: 10.1111/obr.12429. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

Author information

1
Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.

Abstract

Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery.

KEYWORDS:

Adipose; bariatric surgery; obesity

PMID:
27272117
PMCID:
PMC5328428
DOI:
10.1111/obr.12429
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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