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Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2016 Sep;29(3):398-407. doi: 10.1177/0394632016651447. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

Author information

1
Al-Saedan Research Chair for Genetic Behavioral Disorders, Taif University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Unit, Scientific Research Deanship, Taif University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Genetics Dep., Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
2
Al-Saedan Research Chair for Genetic Behavioral Disorders, Taif University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Medical Laboratories Department Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Taif University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt Hhh-hosam@hotmail.com.
3
Al-Saedan Research Chair for Genetic Behavioral Disorders, Taif University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Medical Laboratories Department Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Taif University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt.
4
Al-Saedan Research Chair for Genetic Behavioral Disorders, Taif University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia College of Medicine, Taif University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes.

KEYWORDS:

cadmium chloride; cerebrum; grape seed extract (GSE); protective role; violence

PMID:
27271977
PMCID:
PMC5806757
DOI:
10.1177/0394632016651447
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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