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Clin Breast Cancer. 2016 Oct;16(5):335-343. doi: 10.1016/j.clbc.2016.05.012. Epub 2016 May 13.

Classification, Treatment Strategy, and Associated Drug Resistance in Breast Cancer.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.
Hematology and Medical Oncology, Lankenau Medical Center, Wynnewood, PA.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Widener University, Chester, PA. Electronic address:


Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, affecting 1.7 million patients every year worldwide. As a result of its heterogeneous nature, the genetic profile and associated clinical feature varies greatly among different breast cancer subtypes. With the advancement of molecular biology, our understanding of breast cancer has improved greatly in recent years. In this review, we examine different types of breast cancer and summarize their clinical features, current treatment schemes, and potential drug resistance profiles in response to treatments. We believe that the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of each treatment and subsequent drug resistance development will eventually lead to the discovery of more effective and efficient second-line therapeutics.


Clinical trials; Endocrine therapy; Pathways; Treatment strategies; Triple-negative breast cancer

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