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J Hazard Mater. 2016 Nov 5;317:180-187. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.05.059. Epub 2016 May 20.

Source apportionment of mass concentration and inhalation risk with long-term ambient PCDD/Fs measurements in an urban area.

Author information

1
Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University, No.17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei 100, Taiwan.
2
Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Informatics, Cheng-Shiu University, No.840, Chengqing Rd., Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan; Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng-Shiu University, No.840, Chengqing Rd., Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.
3
Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng-Shiu University, No.840, Chengqing Rd., Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan; Department of Cosmetic and Fashion Styling, Cheng-Shiu University, No.840, Chengqing Rd., Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.
4
Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV, USA; Graduate Faculty, University of Nevada, 1664 N Virginia St., Reno, NV, USA.
5
Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV, USA; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Nevada, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy., Las Vegas, NV, USA.
6
Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University, No.17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei 100, Taiwan; Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University, No.17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei 100, Taiwan; Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, No.8, Zhongshan S. Rd., Taipei 100, Taiwan.
7
Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University, No.17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei 100, Taiwan; Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University, No.17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei 100, Taiwan. Electronic address: changfu@ntu.edu.tw.

Abstract

This study applies a receptor model to quantify source contributions to ambient concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and inhalation cancer risk in Taipei from 2003 through 2009. Seventeen PCDD/F congeners were used in the effective variance solution to the Chemical Mass Balance equations to estimate source-specific mass contributions and inhalation risks. The average total PCDD/F concentration was 0.611pg/Nm(3) (0.036pg I-TEQ/Nm(3)). Traffic emissions contributed the most to the PCDD/F concentration (55.7%), followed by waste incinerators (18.6%) and joss stick burning (9.6%). For the inhalation cancer risk, the average was 1.1×10(-6) with traffic, waste incinerators, and joss paper burning as the main contributors (67.3%, 19.4%, and 6.3%, respectively). The mass and risk contributions of waste incinerators decreased significantly from 2003 to 2009 and were higher at downwind sites than at upwind sites. Reducing PCDD/F emissions from traffic and waste incinerators would provide the greatest health benefit. Policies that reduce the uncontrolled burning of joss stick and joss paper also need to be implemented.

KEYWORDS:

Inhalation cancer risk; Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuran; Source apportionment; Spatio‐temporal variation

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