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J Oral Implantol. 2016 Oct;42(5):399-405. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

Accuracy of Dynamic Navigation for Dental Implant Placement-Model-Based Evaluation.

Author information

1   Private practice, Washington, DC.
2   Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC.
3   X-Nav Technologies, Lansdale, Pa.
4   College of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pa.


The purpose of this model-based study was to determine the accuracy of placing dental implants using a new dynamic navigation system. This investigation focuses on measurements of overall accuracy for implant placement relative to the virtual plan in both dentate and edentulous models, and provides a comparison with a meta-analysis of values reported in the literature for comparable static guidance, dynamic guidance, and freehand placement studies. This study involves 1 surgeon experienced with dynamic navigation placing implants in models under clinical simulation using a dynamic navigation system (X-Guide, X-Nav Technologies, LLC, Lansdale, Pa) based on optical triangulation tracking. Virtual implants were placed into planned sites using the navigation system computer. Post-implant placement cone-beam scans were taken. These scans were mesh overlaid with the virtual plan and used to determine deviations from the virtual plan. The primary outcome variables were platform and angular deviations comparing the actual placement to the virtual plan. The angular accuracy of implants delivered using the tested device was 0.89° ± 0.35° for dentate case types and 1.26° ± 0.66° for edentulous case types, measured relative to the preoperative implant plan. Three-dimensional positional accuracy was 0.38 ± 0.21 mm for dentate and 0.56 ± 0.17 mm for edentulous, measured from the implant apex.


computer-assisted surgery; dental implants; dynamic image navigation; model study

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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