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J Diabetes Complications. 2016 Nov - Dec;30(8):1651-1658. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.05.016. Epub 2016 May 20.

Intra-islet glucagon-like peptide 1.

Author information

1
Endocrinology Section, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Science Center, New Orleans, LA, United States.
2
Endocrinology Section, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Science Center, New Orleans, LA, United States. Electronic address: hwu3@tulane.edu.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is originally identified in the gut as an incretin hormone, and it is potent in stimulating insulin secretion in the pancreas. However, increasing evidence suggests that GLP-1 is also produced locally within pancreatic islets. This review focuses on the past and current discoveries regarding intra-islet GLP-1 production and its functions.

MAIN FINDINGS:

There has been a long-standing debate with regard to whether GLP-1 is produced in the pancreatic α cells. Early controversies lead to the widely accepted conclusion that the vast majority of proglucagon is processed to form glucagon in the pancreas, whereas an insignificant amount is cleaved to produce GLP-1. With technological advancements, recent studies have shown that bioactive GLP-1 is produced locally in the pancreas, and the expression and secretion of GLP-1 within islets are regulated by various factors such as cytokines, hyperglycemia, and β cell injury.

CONCLUSIONS:

GLP-1 is produced by the pancreatic α cells, and it is fully functional as an incretin. Therefore, intra-islet GLP-1 may exert insulinotropic and glucagonostatic effects locally via paracrine and/or autocrine actions, under both normal and diabetic conditions.

KEYWORDS:

Alpha cells; Diabetes; GLP-1; Islets; PC1/3

PMID:
27267264
PMCID:
PMC5050074
DOI:
10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.05.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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