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Environ Technol. 2017 Feb;38(4):424-432. doi: 10.1080/21622515.2016.1196739. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

Removal of Bisphenol A aqueous solution using surfactant-modified natural zeolite: Taguchi's experimental design, adsorption kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study.

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a Department of Environmental Engineering , University of Kocaeli , Kocaeli , Turkey.


In this study, surfactant-modified natural zeolite was used to remove Bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions. Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of BPA adsorption on the adsorbent surfaces were investigated. The experimental data were described with the Temkin isotherm and the pseudo-second- order kinetic model. Taguchi's robust design approach was used to optimize adsorption of BPA. Experimentation was planned as per Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. Tests were conducted with different adsorbate amount, pH, time, initial concentration of BPA, temperature and agitation speed. The optimum levels of control factors for maximum total organic carbon removal were defined (adsorbate amount at 0.25 g, pH at 7, time at 30 min, initial concentration of BPA at 50 mg/L, temperature at 30°C and agitation speed at 200 rpm). The ANOVA analysis shown that the most effective control factor is adsorbent dosage; its contribution is 56.4%. Contribution of pH and mixing rate are 7.5% and 7.6%, respectively. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the optimal combination. The observed value of S/N (ηobs = 39) ratio is compared with that of the predicted value (ηopt = 48). The prediction error, that is, ηopt - ηobs = 9, is within CI value.


ANOVA analysis; Bisphenol A; adsorption; isotherm; kinetic; taguchi model

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