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Arch Microbiol. 2016 Nov;198(9):877-84. doi: 10.1007/s00203-016-1249-x. Epub 2016 Jun 4.

The role of Proteus mirabilis cell wall features in biofilm formation.

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Department of Microbiology, Jan Kochanowski University, Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406, Kielce, Poland.
Department of Microbiology, Jan Kochanowski University, Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406, Kielce, Poland.
Department of Biobanking and Scientific Research, The Regional Science and Technology Center, Podzamcze 45, 26-060, Chęciny, Poland.
Faculty of Environmental, Geomatic and Energy Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314, Kielce, Poland.
Bionicum LTD, Chełmska 21, 00-724, Warsaw, Poland.


Biofilms formed by Proteus mirabilis strains are a serious medical problem, especially in the case of urinary tract infections. Early stages of biofilm formation, such as reversible and irreversible adhesion, are essential for bacteria to form biofilm and avoid eradication by antibiotic therapy. Adhesion to solid surfaces is a complex process where numerous factors play a role, where hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with solid surface seem to be substantial. Cell surface hydrophobicity and electrokinetic potential of bacterial cells depend on their surface composition and structure, where lipopolysaccharide, in Gram-negative bacteria, is prevailing. Our studies focused on clinical and laboratory P. mirabilis strains, where laboratory strains have determined LPS structures. Adherence and biofilm formation tests revealed significant differences between strains adhered in early stages of biofilm formation. Amounts of formed biofilm were expressed by the absorption of crystal violet. Higher biofilm amounts were formed by the strains with more negative values of zeta potential. In contrast, high cell surface hydrophobicity correlated with low biofilm amount.


Biofilm; Cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH); Electrokinetic potential; Epifluorescence microscopy; Microbial adherence to hydrocarbons (MATH); Proteus mirabilis

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