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J Affect Disord. 2016 Sep 15;202:163-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.05.057. Epub 2016 May 27.

Exploring the excess mortality due to depressive symptoms in a community-based sample: The role of Alzheimer's Disease.

Author information

1
Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain; Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: e.lara@pssjd.org.
2
Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain; Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
3
Cognitive Neuroscience Division, Department of Neurology and The Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA; The Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; The Division of Epidemiology, Joseph P. Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
4
Cognitive Neuroscience Division, Department of Neurology and The Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA; The Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; The Division of Epidemiology, Joseph P. Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; The Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Depression has been associated with increased risk of death. However, there is lack of studies exploring such relationship in the context of dementia. Given the high prevalence of both depression and Alzheimer's Disease (AD), investigating their temporal association with mortality is of public health relevance.

METHODS:

Longitudinal data from the WHICAP study were analyzed (1958 individuals aged ≥65 years). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Respondents were identified as having AD if they satisfied the criteria of the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Cox regressions analyses were performed to determine the association between depressive symptoms and risk of all-cause mortality using the overall sample, and by AD status.

RESULTS:

Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher mortality risk after adjusting for all potential covariates in the overall sample (HR=1.22; 95% CI=1.02, 1.46) and in individuals with incident AD (HR=1.88; 95% CI=1.12, 3.18).

LIMITATIONS:

The CES-D does not measure clinical depression but depressive symptomatology. Since those who were exposed to known risk factors for mortality are likely to die prematurely, our results may have been skewed to the individuals with longer survival.

CONCLUSIONS:

Strategies focusing on prevention and early treatment of depression in the elderly may have a beneficial effect not only on patient quality of life and disability, but may also increase survival in the context of AD.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's Disease; Community-based study; Depressive symptoms; Mortality

PMID:
27262638
PMCID:
PMC5584366
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2016.05.057
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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