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J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Feb;32(2):378-387. doi: 10.1111/jgh.13465.

Frequency and risk factors of functional gastro-intestinal disorders in a rural Indian population.

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Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.



As best estimates on functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) prevalence are expected from community studies, which are scanty from Asia, we evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of FGIDs in a rural Indian community.


House-to-house survey was undertaken by trained interviewers using translated-validated Rome III and hospital anxiety and depression questionnaires.


Among 3426 subjects ≥ 18 years old from 3 villages in Uttar Pradesh, 84% participated, of whom 80% were finally analyzed. Of these 2774 subjects (age 38.4 ± 16.5 years, 1573 [56.7%] male), 2654 [95.7%] were vegetarian and 120 [4.3%] non-vegetarian. Socioeconomic classes were upper (16.7%), upper middle (15.1%), lower middle (22%), upper lower (22.2%), and lower (24%) using Prasad's Classification; 603 (21.7%) had FGIDs (413 [14.9%] dyspepsia, 75 [2.7%] irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 115 [4.1%] dyspepsia-IBS overlap), by Rome III criteria. In subjects with dyspepsia, 49/528 (9%) had epigastric pain, 141 (27%) postprandial distress syndromes (EPS, PDS) and 338 (64%) EPS-PDS overlap. IBS was more often diarrhea than constipation-predominant subtype. On univariate analysis, chewing tobacco, aerated drink, tea/coffee, disturbed sleep, vegetarianism, and anxiety parameters and presence of dyspepsia predicting occurrence of IBS were associated with FGIDs. On multivariate analysis, chewing tobacco, aerated soft drink, tea/coffee, vegetarianism, anxiety parameters, and presence of dyspepsia predicting IBS were significant.


Functional gastrointestinal disorders, particularly dyspepsia-IBS overlap, are common in rural Indian population; the risk factors included chewing tobacco, aerated soft drink, tea/coffee, vegetarian diet, disturbed sleep, anxiety, and dyspepsia predicting occurrence of IBS.


Irritable bowel syndrome; constipation; diarrhea; epidemiology; functional GI diseases; functional dyspepsia

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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