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Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Sep;71:102-9. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.05.006. Epub 2016 May 18.

Executive functioning and diabetes: The role of anxious arousal and inflammation.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, Rice University, Bioscience Research Collaborative Room 773, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, United States.
2
Department of Psychology, Rice University, Bioscience Research Collaborative Room 773, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, United States; Department of Psychology, University of Houston, 3695 Cullen Boulevard Room 126, Houston, TX 77204, United States.
3
Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 1450, Houston, TX 77030, United States.
4
Division of Psychology, Institute on Development and Disability, Oregon Health and Science University, 707 SW Gaines Street, Portland, OR 97239, United States.
5
Department of Psychology, Rice University, Bioscience Research Collaborative Room 773, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, United States; Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 1450, Houston, TX 77030, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza - BCM350, Houston, TX 77030, United States. Electronic address: cpfagundes@mdanderson.org.

Abstract

Individuals who perform poorly on measures of the executive function of inhibition have higher anxious arousal in comparison to those with better performance. High anxious arousal is associated with a pro-inflammatory response. Chronically high anxious arousal and inflammation increase one's risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We sought to evaluate anxious arousal and inflammation as underlying mechanisms linking inhibition with diabetes incidence. Participants (N=835) completed measures of cognitive abilities, a self-report measure of anxious arousal, and donated blood to assess interleukin-6 (IL-6) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Individuals with low inhibition were more likely to have diabetes than those with high inhibition due to the serial pathway from high anxious arousal to IL-6. Findings remained when entering other indicators of cognitive abilities as covariates, suggesting that inhibition is a unique cognitive ability associated with diabetes incidence. On the basis of our results, we propose several avenues to explore for improved prevention and treatment efforts for type 2 diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

Anxious arousal; Diabetes; Executive functioning; Inflammation; Inhibition

PMID:
27261922
PMCID:
PMC5662196
DOI:
10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.05.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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