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Transfus Med Rev. 2016 Jul;30(3):109-15. doi: 10.1016/j.tmrv.2016.05.007. Epub 2016 May 21.

Autologous Blood Transfusion in Sports: Emerging Biomarkers.

Author information

1
Swiss Laboratory for Doping Analyses, University Center of Legal Medicine, Lausanne and Geneva, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
2
Transfusion interrégionale CRS, site d'Epalinges, Epalinges, Switzerland.
3
Swiss Laboratory for Doping Analyses, University Center of Legal Medicine, Lausanne and Geneva, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address: Nicolas.leuenberger@chuv.ch.

Abstract

Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency, blood doping through erythropoietin injection or blood transfusion is frequently used by athletes to increase oxygen delivery to muscles and enhance performance. In contrast with allogeneic blood transfusion and erythropoietic stimulants, there is presently no direct method of detection for autologous blood transfusion (ABT) doping. Blood reinfusion is currently monitored with individual follow-up of hematological variables via the athlete biological passport, which requires further improvement. Microdosage is undetectable, and suspicious profiles in athletes are often attributed to exposure to altitude, heat stress, or illness. Additional indirect biomarkers may increase the sensitivity and specificity of the longitudinal approach. The emergence of "-omics" strategies provides new opportunities to discover biomarkers for the indirect detection of ABT. With the development of direct quantitative methods, transcriptomics based on microRNA or messenger RNA expression is a promising approach. Because blood donation and blood reinfusion alter iron metabolism, quantification of proteins involved in metal metabolism, such as hepcidin, may be applied in an "ironomics" strategy to improve the detection of ABT. As red blood cell (RBC) storage triggers changes in membrane proteins, proteomic methods have the potential to identify the presence of stored RBCs in blood. Alternatively, urine matrix can be used for the quantification of the plasticizer di(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate and its metabolites that originate from blood storage bags, suggesting recent blood transfusion, and have an important degree of sensitivity and specificity. This review proposes that various indirect biomarkers should be applied in combination with mathematical approaches for longitudinal monitoring aimed at improving ABT detection.

KEYWORDS:

Athlete biological passport; Biomarkers; Blood doping; Blood transfusions; −omics methods

PMID:
27260108
DOI:
10.1016/j.tmrv.2016.05.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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