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J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2016 Jul-Aug;52(4):265-8. doi: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6396. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy for Bromethalin Toxicity in a Dog.

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From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.


Bromethalin is a central nervous system toxin currently incorporated into several different rodenticides. In 2008, the EPA requested that manufacturers phase out second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. In response, manufacturers began to increase production of bromethalin-based rodenticides. It is likely that pet exposure to bromethalin will increase in the future. Bromethalin has no known antidote and tends to deposit in fat. Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) are being used with increasing frequency in both human and veterinary medicine to treat numerous acute systemic toxicities. A 4 yr old spayed female Pit bull terrier was presented following witnessed ingestion of bromethalin rodenticide by the owners. Decontamination was unsuccessful and ILE was started. Serum was frozen at -80°C before and 1 hr after completion of ILE. In rats, the half-life of desmethylbromethalin, the toxic metabolite, has been reported at 5.6 days and 6 days, and it is likely to be similar in dogs. The only intervention between the pre-lipid serum sample and the post-lipid serum sample was the administration of ILE, and the serum desmethylbromethalin levels were reduced by 75% (from 4 ppb to 1 ppb) during this time. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing treatment of bromethalin ingestion with ILE.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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