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Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Nov;124(11):1700-1706. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Particulate Matter and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: Associations between Different Particle Sizes and Sources with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in the SAPALDIA Study.

Author information

1
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Subclinical atherosclerosis has been associated with long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM), but the relevance of particle size and sources of exposure remains unclear.

OBJECTIVES:

We investigated the association of long-term exposure to PM10 (≤ 10 μm), PM2.5 (≤ 2.5 μm: total mass, vehicular, and crustal sources), and ultrafine particles [UFP < 0.1 μm: particle number concentration (PNC) and lung-deposited surface area (LDSA)] with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT).

METHODS:

We used data from 1,503 participants ≥ 50 years old who participated in the third examination of the Swiss SAPALDIA cohort. Exposures were obtained from dispersion models and land-use regression models. Covariate information, including previous cardiovascular risk factors, was obtained from the second and third SAPALDIA examinations.

RESULTS:

The adjusted percent difference in CIMT associated with an exposure contrast between the 10th and 90th percentile was 1.58% (95% CI: -0.30, 3.47%) for PM10, 2.10% (95% CI: 0.04, 4.16%) for PM2.5, 1.67% (95% CI: -0.13, 3.48%) for the vehicular source of PM2.5, -0.58% (95% CI: -3.95, 2.79%) for the crustal source of PM2.5, 2.06% (95% CI: 0.03, 4.10%) for PNC, and 2.32% (95% CI: 0.23, 4.40%) for LDSA. Stronger associations were observed among diabetics, subjects with low-educational level, and those at higher cardiovascular risk.

CONCLUSIONS:

CIMT was associated with exposure to PM10, PM2.5, and UFP. The PM2.5 source-specific analysis showed a positive association for the vehicular source but not for the crustal source. Although the effects of PNC and LDSA were similar in magnitude, two-pollutant and residual-based models suggested that LDSA may be a better marker for the health relevance of UFP. Citation: Aguilera I, Dratva J, Caviezel S, Burdet L, de Groot E, Ducret-Stich RE, Eeftens M, Keidel D, Meier R, Perez L, Rothe T, Schaffner E, Schmit-Trucksäss A, Tsai MY, Schindler C, Künzli N, Probst-Hensch N. 2016. Particulate matter and subclinical atherosclerosis: associations between different particle sizes and sources with carotid intima-media thickness in the SAPALDIA study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1700-1706; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP161.

PMID:
27258721
PMCID:
PMC5089877
DOI:
10.1289/EHP161
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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