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Nutrients. 2016 Jun 1;8(6). pii: E319. doi: 10.3390/nu8060319.

Crucial Role of Vitamin D in the Musculoskeletal System.

Author information

1
Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Siegfried Weller Institut, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, Tübingen D-72076, Germany. elkewintermeyer@gmx.de.
2
Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Siegfried Weller Institut, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, Tübingen D-72076, Germany. Cihle@bgu-tuebingen.de.
3
Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Siegfried Weller Institut, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, Tübingen D-72076, Germany. Sabrina.Ehnert@med.uni-tuebingen.de.
4
Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Siegfried Weller Institut, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, Tübingen D-72076, Germany. Ustoeckle@bgu-tuebingen.de.
5
Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Siegfried Weller Institut, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, Tübingen D-72076, Germany. Gochs@bgu-tuebingen.de.
6
Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Siegfried Weller Institut, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, Tübingen D-72076, Germany. PdeZwart@bgu-tuebingen.de.
7
Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Siegfried Weller Institut, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, Tübingen D-72076, Germany. Iflesch@bgu-tuebingen.de.
8
Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Siegfried Weller Institut, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, Tübingen D-72076, Germany. Cbahrs@bgu-tuebingen.de.
9
Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Siegfried Weller Institut, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, Tübingen D-72076, Germany. andreas.nuessler@gmail.com.

Abstract

Vitamin D is well known to exert multiple functions in bone biology, autoimmune diseases, cell growth, inflammation or neuromuscular and other immune functions. It is a fat-soluble vitamin present in many foods. It can be endogenously produced by ultraviolet rays from sunlight when the skin is exposed to initiate vitamin D synthesis. However, since vitamin D is biologically inert when obtained from sun exposure or diet, it must first be activated in human beings before functioning. The kidney and the liver play here a crucial role by hydroxylation of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the liver and to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidney. In the past decades, it has been proven that vitamin D deficiency is involved in many diseases. Due to vitamin D's central role in the musculoskeletal system and consequently the strong negative impact on bone health in cases of vitamin D deficiency, our aim was to underline its importance in bone physiology by summarizing recent findings on the correlation of vitamin D status and rickets, osteomalacia, osteopenia, primary and secondary osteoporosis as well as sarcopenia and musculoskeletal pain. While these diseases all positively correlate with a vitamin D deficiency, there is a great controversy regarding the appropriate vitamin D supplementation as both positive and negative effects on bone mineral density, musculoskeletal pain and incidence of falls are reported.

KEYWORDS:

bone health; chronic disease; muscle pain; supplementation; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency

PMID:
27258303
PMCID:
PMC4924160
DOI:
10.3390/nu8060319
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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