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Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Jun 1;17(6). pii: E855. doi: 10.3390/ijms17060855.

Update on the Management of Pediatric Acute Osteomyelitis and Septic Arthritis.

Author information

1
Pediatric Highly Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy. lucacastellazzi@libero.it.
2
Respiratory Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy. marco.mantero@unimi.it.
3
Pediatric Highly Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy. susanna.esposito@unimi.it.

Abstract

Acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis are two infections whose frequencies are increasing in pediatric patients. Acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis need to be carefully assessed, diagnosed, and treated to avoid devastating sequelae. Traditionally, the treatment of acute osteoarticular infection in pediatrics was based on prolonged intravenous anti-infective therapy. However, results from clinical trials have suggested that in uncomplicated cases, a short course of a few days of parenteral antibiotics followed by oral therapy is safe and effective. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians an update on recent controversies and advances regarding the management of acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children. In recent years, the emergence of bacterial species resistant to commonly used antibiotics that are particularly aggressive highlights the necessity for further research to optimize treatment approaches and to develop new molecules able to fight the war against acute osteoarticular infection in pediatric patients.

KEYWORDS:

anti-infective therapy; antibiotics; osteoarticular infection; osteomyelitis; septic arthritis

PMID:
27258258
PMCID:
PMC4926389
DOI:
10.3390/ijms17060855
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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