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Front Pediatr. 2016 May 25;4:53. doi: 10.3389/fped.2016.00053. eCollection 2016.

Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome.

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Pediatrics Nephrology, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine , Bronx, NY , USA.


There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated.


children; focal glomerulosclerosis; genetics; minimal-change disease; nephrotic syndrome; outcomes; pediatric

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