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Iran J Psychiatry. 2016 Jan;11(1):1-14.

The Role of Lead Exposure on Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder ‎in Children: A Systematic Review.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University, Kingsville, Texas, USA.
2
Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
5
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
6
Psychiatric Research Center, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral ‎disorders in children effecting the families and society. This systematic review examined ‎the literature on the role of lead exposure in children with ADHD‏ ‏symptoms. Articles were ‎analytically compared, focusing on the methodology used to assess exposure and‏ ‏adverse ‎effects‏ ‏on children with ADHD. ‎

METHOD:

Using the search strategy from six databases (Pub Med, PsycINFO, Web of Science, SID, ‎IRAN Medex, IRAN DOC), hand searching in key journals, list of references of selected ‎articles and gray literature, without time and language limitation, articles up to May 2014 ‎were entered into this review. In this review, 1,387 articles were acquired at the primary ‎search. Study selection and quality assessment processes were done based on Cochrane ‎library guidelines. After assessing the quality and inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 articles ‎were selected and entered into the data synthesis.‎

RESULTS:

Blood Lead level (BLL) of less than 10µg/dL in children has been attributed to at least one ‎type of ADHD i.e., Combined / Inattentive / Hyperactive-Impulsive. The results of this ‎study revealed that in 16 out of the 18 studies, a significant association was found between ‎BLL and one of the types of ADHD.‎

CONCLUSION:

Based on the findings of this study, even the BLL of less than the action level of 10µg/dL, ‎chosen by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), may affect children with ‎ADHD.‎.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity; Blood Lead Level; Childhood; Lead Poisoning; Nervous System

PMID:
27252763
PMCID:
PMC4888135

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