Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Bacteriol. 2016 Jul 28;198(16):2156-65. doi: 10.1128/JB.00101-16. Print 2016 Aug 15.

Rotation of Vibrio fischeri Flagella Produces Outer Membrane Vesicles That Induce Host Development.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
2
Kewalo Marine Laboratory, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
3
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA Kewalo Marine Laboratory, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
4
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA Kewalo Marine Laboratory, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA eruby@hawaii.edu.

Abstract

Using the squid-vibrio association, we aimed to characterize the mechanism through which Vibrio fischeri cells signal morphogenesis of the symbiotic light-emitting organ. The symbiont releases two cell envelope molecules, peptidoglycan (PG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that, within 12 h of light organ colonization, act in synergy to trigger normal tissue development. Recent work has shown that outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by V. fischeri are sufficient to induce PG-dependent morphogenesis; however, the mechanism(s) of OMV release by these bacteria has not been described. Like several genera of both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, V. fischeri cells elaborate polar flagella that are enclosed by an extension of the outer membrane, whose function remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that along with the well-recognized phenomenon of blebbing from the cell's surface, rotation of this sheathed flagellum also results in the release of OMVs. In addition, we demonstrate that most of the development-inducing LPS is associated with these OMVs and that the presence of the outer membrane protein OmpU but not the LPS O antigen on these OMVs is important in triggering normal host development. These results also present insights into a possible new mechanism of LPS release by pathogens with sheathed flagella.

IMPORTANCE:

Determining the function(s) of sheathed flagella in bacteria has been challenging, because no known mutation results only in the loss of this outer membrane-derived casing. Nevertheless, the presence of a sheathed flagellum in such host-associated genera as Vibrio, Helicobacter, and Brucella has led to several proposed functions, including physical protection of the flagella and masking of their immunogenic flagellins. Using the squid-vibrio light organ symbiosis, we demonstrate another role, that of V. fischeri cells require rotating flagella to induce apoptotic cell death within surface epithelium, which is a normal step in the organ's development. Further, we present evidence that this rotation releases apoptosis-triggering lipopolysaccharide in the form of outer membrane vesicles. Such release may also occur by pathogens but with different outcomes for the host.

PMID:
27246572
PMCID:
PMC4966437
DOI:
10.1128/JB.00101-16
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center