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J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 Apr;30(8):990-994. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2016.1196662. Epub 2016 Jun 17.

Levels of serum vitamin D and calcium in pregnancies complicated with fetal congenital diaphragmatic hernia and normal pregnancies.

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a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Division of Perinatology, Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital , Ankara , Turkey.



Vitamin D (VD) deficiency is a common public health problem worldwide in all age groups. Receptors and enzymes related to VD metabolism have been shown in many cells and tissues of the body. VD plays a crucial role in cellular growth and differentiation during embryogenesis. It has been suggested that VD deficiency may be associated with various diseases, and that lower maternal serum levels may be associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. In this study, we aimed to compare serum VD levels of pregnant women whose pregnancies complicated by congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with healthy pregnant women. We also evaluated perinatal outcomes of these pregnancies.


Total of 77 patients was included in this prospective and cross-sectional case-controlled study. 24 pregnant women having a fetus with CDH diagnosed prenatally formed the study group, and 53 healthy pregnants were eligible for the control group. Demographics and clinical characteristics of the cases with some laboratory parameters were recorded. Perinatal outcomes were also investigated.


No significant differences were observed between two groups in terms of demographics and clinical features. Mean maternal serum VD levels were significantly lower in the study group than in the controls (p: 0.019). Ionized calcium and corrected calcium levels were also found to be lower in pregnant women with CDH (pā€‰<ā€‰0.001). Moreover, the calcium-rich dietary habits were also more common in the control group. Four (16.7%) patients chose termination and one (4.2%) experienced a stillbirth. Fourteen (58.3%) infants died in the early neonatal period; although some had undergone surgical interventions, only 5 (20.8%) were still alive after surgery.


Maternal serum VD and calcium levels were significantly lower in pregnancies complicated by CDH than healthy pregnant women. Hipovitaminosis D may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of CDH.


Calcium; calcium-rich dietary; congenital diagraphma hernia; perinatal outcome; vitamin D

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