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BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016 May 31;17:238. doi: 10.1186/s12891-016-1094-8.

Coordinate and synergistic effects of extensive treadmill exercise and ovariectomy on articular cartilage degeneration.

Author information

1
Department of Joint Surgery and Sports Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan.
2
Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan.
3
Department of Cartilage Regeneration, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan. tsuji.orj@tmd.ac.jp.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease, little has been reported regarding the cooperative interaction among these factors on cartilage metabolism. Here we examined the synergistic effect of ovariectomy (OVX) and excessive mechanical stress (forced running) on articular cartilage homeostasis in a mouse model resembling a human postmenopausal condition.

METHODS:

Mice were randomly divided into four groups, I: Sham, II: OVX, III: Sham and forced running (60 km in 6 weeks), and IV: OVX and forced running. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the degeneration of articular cartilage and synovitis in the knee joint. Morphological changes of subchondral bone were analyzed by micro-CT.

RESULTS:

Micro-CT analyses showed significant loss of metaphyseal trabecular bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) after OVX as described previously. Forced running increased the trabecular BV/TV in all mice. In the epiphyseal region, no visible alteration in bone morphology or osteophyte formation was observed in any of the four groups. Histological analysis revealed that OVX or forced running respectively had subtle effects on cartilage degeneration. However, the combination of OVX and forced running synergistically enhanced synovitis and articular cartilage degeneration. Although morphological changes in chondrocytes were observed during OA initiation, no signs of bone marrow edema were observed in any of the four experimental groups.

CONCLUSION:

We report the coordinate and synergistic effects of extensive treadmill exercise and ovariectomy on articular cartilage degeneration. Since no surgical procedure was performed on the knee joint directly in this model, this model is useful in addressing the molecular pathogenesis of naturally occurring OA.

KEYWORDS:

Forced running; Joint inflammation; Mechanical stress; Naturally occurring osteoarthritis model; Ovariectomy

PMID:
27245323
PMCID:
PMC4888618
DOI:
10.1186/s12891-016-1094-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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