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Pediatrics. 2016 May;137(5). pii: e20154155. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-4155.

Exposure to Advertisements and Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Middle and High School Students.

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Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; and Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Applied Sciences, Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA
Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; and.



Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among US students increased significantly during 2011 to 2014. We examined the association between e-cigarette advertisement exposure and current e-cigarette use among US middle school and high school students.


Data came from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 22 007), a survey of students in grades 6 through 12. The association between current e-cigarette use and exposure to e-cigarette advertisements via 4 sources (Internet, newspapers/magazines, retail stores, and TV/movies) was assessed. Three advertising exposure categories were assessed: never/rarely, sometimes, and most of the time/always. Separate logistic regression models were used to measure the association, adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and other tobacco use.


Compared with students who reported exposure to e-cigarette advertisements never/rarely, the odds of current e-cigarette use were significantly (P < .05) greater among those reporting exposure sometimes and most of the time/always, respectively, as follows: Internet (adjusted odds ratio: middle school, 1.44 and 2.91; high school, 1.49, and 2.02); newspapers/magazines (middle school, 0.93 [not significant] and 1.87; high school, 1.26 and 1.71); retail stores (middle school, 1.78 and 2.34; high school, 1.37, and 1.91); and TV/movies (middle school, 1.25 [not significant] and 1.80; high school, 1.24 and 1.54).


E-cigarette advertisement exposure is associated with current e-cigarette use among students; greater exposure is associated with higher odds of use. Given that youth use of tobacco in any form is unsafe, comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, including efforts to reduce youth exposure to advertising, are critical to prevent all forms of tobacco use among youth.

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