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Ann Intern Med. 2016 Sep 6;165(5):325-33. doi: 10.7326/M16-0799. Epub 2016 May 31.

The Anticipated Clinical and Economic Effects of 90-90-90 in South Africa.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 global treatment target aims to achieve 73% virologic suppression among HIV-infected persons worldwide by 2020.

OBJECTIVE:

To estimate the clinical and economic value of reaching this ambitious goal in South Africa, by using a microsimulation model of HIV detection, disease, and treatment.

DESIGN:

Modeling of the "current pace" strategy, which simulates existing scale-up efforts and gradual increases in overall virologic suppression from 24% to 36% in 5 years, and the UNAIDS target strategy, which simulates 73% virologic suppression in 5 years.

DATA SOURCES:

Published estimates and South African survey data on HIV transmission rates (0.16 to 9.03 per 100 person-years), HIV-specific age-stratified fertility rates (1.0 to 9.1 per 100 person-years), and costs of care ($11 to $31 per month for antiretroviral therapy and $20 to $157 per month for routine care).

TARGET POPULATION:

South African HIV-infected population, including incident infections over the next 10 years.

PERSPECTIVE:

Modified societal perspective, excluding time and productivity costs.

TIME HORIZON:

5 and 10 years.

INTERVENTION:

Aggressive HIV case detection, efficient linkage to care, rapid treatment scale-up, and adherence and retention interventions toward the UNAIDS target strategy.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

HIV transmissions, deaths, years of life saved, maternal orphans, costs (2014 U.S. dollars), and cost-effectiveness.

RESULTS OF BASE-CASE ANALYSIS:

Compared with the current pace strategy, over 5 years the UNAIDS target strategy would avert 873 000 HIV transmissions, 1 174 000 deaths, and 726 000 maternal orphans while saving 3 002 000 life-years; over 10 years, it would avert 2 051 000 HIV transmissions, 2 478 000 deaths, and 1 689 000 maternal orphans while saving 13 340 000 life-years. The additional budget required for the UNAIDS target strategy would be $7.965 billion over 5 years and $15.979 billion over 10 years, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $2720 and $1260 per year of life saved, respectively.

RESULTS OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS:

Outcomes generally varied less than 20% from base-case outcomes when key input parameters were varied within plausible ranges.

LIMITATION:

Several pathways may lead to 73% overall virologic suppression; these were examined in sensitivity analyses.

CONCLUSION:

Reaching the 90-90-90 HIV suppression target would be costly but very effective and cost-effective in South Africa. Global health policymakers should mobilize the political and economic support to realize this target.

PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE:

National Institutes of Health and the Steve and Deborah Gorlin MGH Research Scholars Award.

PMID:
27240120
PMCID:
PMC5012932
DOI:
10.7326/M16-0799
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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