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J Curr Ophthalmol. 2015 Nov 6;27(1-2):51-5. doi: 10.1016/j.joco.2015.09.008. eCollection 2015 Mar-Jun.

The prevalence of refractive errors in 6- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in Dezful, Iran.

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Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, Iran.
Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Noor Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Optometry, School of Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Refractive Errors Research Center, School of Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Noor Research Center for Ophthalmic Epidemiology, Noor eye hospital, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



To determine the prevalence of refractive errors, among 6- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in the city of Dezful in western Iran.


In this cross-sectional study, 1375 Dezful schoolchildren were selected through multistage cluster sampling. After obtaining written consent, participants had uncorrected and corrected visual acuity tests and cycloplegic refraction at the school site. Refractive errors were defined as myopia [spherical equivalent (SE) -0.5 diopter (D)], hyperopia (SE ≥ 2.0D), and astigmatism (cylinder error > 0.5D).


1151 (83.7%) schoolchildren participated in the study. Of these, 1130 completed their examinations. 21 individuals were excluded because of poor cooperation and contraindication for cycloplegic refraction. Prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism were 14.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.1-19.6), 12.9% (95% CI: 7.2-18.6), and 45.3% (95% CI: 40.3-50.3), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an age-related increase in myopia prevalence (p << 0.001) and a decrease in hyperopia prevalence (p << 0.001). There was a higher prevalence of myopia in boys (p<<0.001) and hyperopia in girls (p = 0.007).


This study showed a considerably high prevalence of refractive errors among the Iranian population of schoolchildren in Dezful in the west of Iran. The prevalence of myopia is considerably high compared to previous studies in Iran and increases with age.


Children; Epidemiology; Middle-east; Refractive errors

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