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Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Aug;49:87-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.05.021. Epub 2016 May 24.

Assessing the burden of pneumonia using administrative data from Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

Author information

1
Azmi Burhani Consulting, Metropolitan Square, W103A, Jalan PJU 8/1, Damansara Perdana, 47820 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address: soraya.azmi@azmi-burhani.com.
2
International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, UKM Medical Centre, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Department of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Public Health, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait.
3
Department of Health Management, Faculty of Health Science, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey.
4
United Nations University - International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
5
Department of Health Philippines, Manila, Philippines.
6
Health Policy Development Program, Ministry of Health, Manila, Philippines.
7
Science University of Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
8
National Centre for Casemix, Ministry of Health Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
9
Centre for Health Financing and Insurance, Ministry of Health Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
10
Pfizer Inc., Collegeville, Pennsylvania, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To describe the incidence, mortality, cost, and length of stay (LOS) of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in three Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

METHODS:

Using Casemix system data from contributing hospitals, patients with International Classification of Diseases 10(th) revision (ICD-10) codes identifying pneumonia were categorized into CAP or HAP using a logical algorithm. The incidence among hospitalized patients, case fatality rates (CFR), mean LOS, and cost of admission were calculated. The population incidence was calculated based on Malaysian data.

RESULTS:

For every 100000 discharges, CAP and HAP incidences were 14245 and 5615 cases, respectively, in the Philippines, 4205 and 2187, respectively, in Malaysia, and 988 and 538, respectively, in Indonesia. The impact was greatest in the young and the elderly. The CFR varied from 1.4% to 4.2% for CAP and from 9.1% and 25.5% for HAP. The mean LOS was 6.1-8.6 days for CAP and 6.9-10.2 days for HAP. The cost of hospitalization was between USD 254 and USD 1208 for CAP and between USD 275 and USD 1482 for HAP.

CONCLUSIONS:

The burden of CAP and HAP is high. Results varied between the three countries, likely due to differences in socio-economic conditions, health system differences, and ICD-coding practices.

KEYWORDS:

Burden of disease; CAP; Cost; HAP; Incidence rate; LOS

PMID:
27235085
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijid.2016.05.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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