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Sleep Breath. 2016 Dec;20(4):1337-1345. doi: 10.1007/s11325-016-1363-7. Epub 2016 May 27.

Normative values of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), derived from a large German sample.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
2
LIFE - Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
3
Faculty of Sport Science, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
4
Institute and Policlinic for Medical Psychology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
5
German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
6
Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University of Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.
7
Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University of Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, 04103, Leipzig, Germany. andreas.hinz@medizin.uni-leipzig.de.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Daytime sleepiness is associated with several medical problems. The aim of this paper is to provide normative values for one of the most often used questionnaires measuring daytime sleepiness, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS).

METHODS:

A large sample of 9711 people from the German general population took part in this study. In addition to the ESS, several other questionnaires were used, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors were recorded.

RESULTS:

Normative values for the ESS are given. According to the generally accepted criterion ESS > 10, 23 % of the sample showed excessive daytime sleepiness. Males reported significantly more daytime sleepiness than females (effect size d = 0.19). In the age range of 40-80 years, a continuous decline of daytime sleepiness was observed. Psychometric properties of the ESS were good. Alcohol intake and nicotine consumption were marginally associated with daytime sleepiness, and obese people reported significantly more sleepiness than people of normal weight (OR = 1.39).

CONCLUSIONS:

The normative tables allow clinicians and researchers to assess the degree of their patients' daytime sleepiness, especially in the upper range of scores.

KEYWORDS:

Daytime sleepiness; Epidemiology; Normative values; Population-based study; Prognostic factors

PMID:
27234595
DOI:
10.1007/s11325-016-1363-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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