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J Med Biol Eng. 2016;36:153-167. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Response of Primary Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Dermal Keratinocytes to Thermal Printer Materials In Vitro.

Author information

1
Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3025 East Carson Street, Suite 216, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 USA.
2
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA USA ; Department of Surgery, ISMETT-Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione, Palermo, Italy.
3
Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3025 East Carson Street, Suite 216, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 USA ; Department of Bioengineering, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Abstract

Advancement in thermal three-dimensional printing techniques has greatly increased the possible applications of various materials in medical applications and tissue engineering. Yet, potential toxic effects on primary human cells have been rarely investigated. Therefore, we compared four materials commonly used in thermal printing for bioengineering, namely thermally printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, MED610, polycarbonate, and polylactic acid, and investigated their effects on primary human adult skin epidermal keratinocytes and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in vitro. We investigated indirect effects on both cell types caused by potential liberation of soluble substances from the materials, and also analyzed BM-MSCs in direct contact with the materials. We found that even in culture without direct contact with the materials, the culture with MED610 (and to a lesser extent acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) significantly affected keratinocytes, reducing cell numbers and proliferation marker Ki67 expression, and increasing glucose consumption, lactate secretion, and expression of differentiation-associated genes. BM-MSCs had decreased metabolic activity, and exhibited increased cell death in direct culture on the materials. MED610 and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene induced the strongest expression of genes associated to differentiation and estrogen receptor activation. In conclusion, we found strong cell-type-specific effects of the materials, suggesting that materials for applications in regenerative medicine should be carefully selected not only based on their mechanical properties but also based on their cell-type-specific biological effects.

KEYWORDS:

Biocompatibility; Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell; Keratinocyte; MED610; Thermal printer material

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