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Int Neurourol J. 2016 May;20(Suppl 1):S8-14. doi: 10.5213/inj.1632614.307. Epub 2016 May 26.

Central Nervous System-Peripheral Immune System Dialogue in Neurological Disorders: Possible Application of Neuroimmunology in Urology.

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Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea.


Previous concepts of immune-privileged sites obscured the role of peripheral immune cells in neurological disorders and excluded the consideration of the potential benefits of immunotherapy. Recently, however, numerous studies have demonstrated that the blood-brain barrier in the central nervous system is an educational barrier rather than an absolute barrier to peripheral immune cells. Emerging knowledge of immune-privileged sites suggests that peripheral immune cells can infiltrate these sites via educative gates and that crosstalk can occur between infiltrating immune cells and the central nervous system parenchyma. This concept can be expanded to the testis, which has long been considered an immune-privileged site, and to neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Thus, we propose that the relationship between peripheral immune cells, the brain, and the urologic system should be considered as an additional possible mechanism in urologic diseases, and that immunotherapy might be an alternative therapeutic strategy in treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction.


Immunotherapy; Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction; Neuroimmunology; Neurological Disorders; T Cell

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