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Cell Death Dis. 2016 May 26;7:e2234. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2016.140.

The emerging role of Toll-like receptor 4 in myocardial inflammation.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 127 Changle West Road, Xi'an 710032, China.
2
Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, 321 Zhongshan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, China.
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Fourth Military Medical University, 169 Changle West Road, Xi'an 710032, China.
4
Department of Aerospace Medicine, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.
5
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 1 Xinsi Road, Xi'an 710038, China.
6
Department of Geriatrics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 127 Changle West Road, Xi'an 710032, China.

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors involved in cardiovascular diseases. Notably, numerous studies have demonstrated that TLR4 activates the expression of several of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes that play pivotal roles in myocardial inflammation, particularly myocarditis, myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure. In addition, TLR4 is an emerging target for anti-inflammatory therapies. Given the significance of TLR4, it would be useful to summarize the current literature on the molecular mechanisms and roles of TLR4 in myocardial inflammation. Thus, in this review, we first introduce the basic knowledge of the TLR4 gene and describe the activation and signaling pathways of TLR4 in myocardial inflammation. Moreover, we highlight the recent progress of research on the involvement of TLR4 in myocardial inflammation. The information reviewed here may be useful to further experimental research and to increase the potential of TLR4 as a therapeutic target.

PMID:
27228349
PMCID:
PMC4917669
DOI:
10.1038/cddis.2016.140
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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