Send to

Choose Destination
Lancet. 2016 Jul 16;388(10041):294-306. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30448-2. Epub 2016 May 22.

Factors affecting outcomes in patients reaching end-stage kidney disease worldwide: differences in access to renal replacement therapy, modality use, and haemodialysis practices.

Author information

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:
Showa University School of Medicine, Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan.
ERA-EDTA Registry, Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands.
Monash Medical Centre and Monash University Clayton, Clayton, VIC, Australia.
Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.


More than 2 million people worldwide are being treated for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This Series paper provides an overview of incidence, modality use (in-centre haemodialysis, home dialysis, or transplantation), and mortality for patients with ESKD based on national registry data. We also present data from an international cohort study to highlight differences in haemodialysis practices that affect survival and the experience of patients who rely on this therapy, which is both life-sustaining and profoundly disruptive to their quality of life. Data illustrate disparities in access to renal replacement therapy of any kind and in the use of transplantation or home dialysis, both of which are widely considered preferable to in-centre haemodialysis for many patients with ESKD in settings where infrastructure permits. For most patients with ESKD worldwide who are treated with in-centre haemodialysis, overall survival is poor, but longer in some Asian countries than elsewhere in the world, and longer in Europe than in the USA, although this gap has reduced. Commendable haemodialysis practice includes exceptionally high use of surgical vascular access in Japan and in some European countries, and the use of longer or more frequent dialysis sessions in some countries, allowing for more effective volume management. Mortality is especially high soon after ESKD onset, and improved preparation for ESKD is needed including alignment of decision making with the wishes of patients and families.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center